Multi spectral images like Landsat thematic Mapper and SPOT XS produce few broad wavelength bands but the hyperspectral image sensor will produce narrower wavelength bands. These bands can range from 100 to 200 or more. These measurement make it possible to derive continuous spectrum for each image cell, see below image. After sensor is adjusted, terrain and atmospheric condition are applied, then the results is verified against the collected spectrum value to categorize the type of vegetation or minerals or other features. Hyperspectral images contain ton of information, surface information and its spectrum behavior should be understand deeply and how it related to the hyperspectral images. This type of image are finding their importance in different fields as before it was just used for remote sensing application. Here are few applications of hyperspectral images.
1. Remote Sensing: In remote sensing technology it is very important to distinguish earth surface features, each features have different spectrum band. Multi spectral satellite can capture image up few bands for example Landsat 7 have 8 bands. But multi spectral imaging satellite can capture earth surface in more than 200 bands which helps scientist to differentiate objects that were not possible in multi spectral imaging because of spectral resolution.
5. Food: Hyperspectral imaging is widely used in the food sector. It is used in different discipline of food industry, bruise detection in apples, freshness of the fish, citrus fruit inspection, distribution of sugar in melons, and sorting of potatoes. For example apple bruise is not visible on the early stage and it takes few days to show dark color mark. In this type of scenario hyperspectral imaging techniques can be used to track the early stage of bruise for the quality control.
8. Forensic Science: Hyperspectral imaging technology can differentiate fine spectral resolution, which makes suitable in the forensic laboratory. It can be used in different way: questioned document analysis, arson investigation, bloodstain visualization, fiber comparison, gun powder residue, visualization, duct tape examination, fingerprint enhancement, and TLC plate visualization. For example hyperspectral imaging technology can differentiate between dark marks and bloodstains. This type of differentiating is quite important while solving the crime case.
10. Oil and GAS: Hyperspectral imaging technology is widely used in the exploration of Oil and Gas. Now due to the possibility of hyperspectral imaging sensor it is possible to detect onshore oil seeps. Read this article, Exploring for onshore oil seeps with hyperspectral imaging.